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Wednesday, November 19, 2014


Mooring stone #2 location is shown at the center left of this image.  The image is taken from a higher elevation than the image for mooring stone #1.  So the harbor looks smaller but it will hold more longboats.  
The earthen berm to the right appears to have been made by someone moving dirt into the lake to form the harbor.
Mooring stone #2 is shown at the left.  This location is just before the pull to Duck Lake where mooring stone #3 was found.   Boat crews may have put into this harbor to prepare while waiting their turn on the boat lift segment.  Maybe additional men with ropes joined the crew, who would soon make the pull up the shallow stream toward the 60 foot lift.
The larger stones used for mooring stones may have been moved into place by the Copper miners of 4,200 to 3,200 years ago.
An iron bit was needed to make a hole in the mooring stone.  The holes in the stones are evidence that the iron-age Vikings were in western Minnesota from the years 1,000 to 1,400.  Steve Helgrin has found the front edge of a Viking iron bit (2011).
The image above shows the waterway from Sti1nking Lake, left top, to Duck Lake, right bottom.  This segment was a difficult passage.  The elevation profile at the bottom of the image illustrates the difficulty.
Up until this segment the boat crews may have been gaining elevation by walking in the grass and pulling an empty boat upstream.  When they reached Stinking Lake they would have pulled the boat about 43 miles from the Red River.  They would have gained about 380 feet of elevation.
The STRAIGHT cut.  Stinking Lake is beyond the trees.
But the Stinking to Duck Lake passage was different.  They could pull a few miles upstream on a small waterway that quickly petered out.  The first segment may have been a marsh.
Apparently a large amount of man power was used to straighten a waterway through that maze.
Then they were faced with a portage of the boat about sixty feet (60') high.  See the sudden rise at the right of the elevation profile.  
This land formation may have been caused when the Big Event. created the Horst of western Minnesota.  The uplifted flat terrain did not create rivers as mountain terrain would.  So the boat crews were faced with lifting the boats over the uplifted edge of Wynland of West. 
The DEEP CUT from Sinking Lake to Duck Lake

They may have made the portage easier by investing a great amount of manpower to make this deep cut.     In the Bronze age they may have had literally boat loads of slaves.
This cut is 200 feet wide, 1,000 feet long and slopes from the pond in the background to the height of a shallow depression over the ridge line between Stinking Lake and Duck Lake.
Another view of the Deep Cut,
 looking toward Stinking Lake.
Notice, in the image to the right, that the cut is about 16 feet deep in the center where the top of a small ridge is seen.  The near edge of the ridge is seen in the bottom of the image.

Perhaps the crew, or the slaves, stood on the hills up and over the ridge as they pulled the boats up the deep cut.  The advantage of the cut would have been that, when the men pulled on the ropes, they would have been a lifted the boat as well as moving it up the slope.  Without the cut, which enabled men to be above the boat, they may have pulled the boat down toward the snow or rollers.  The men standing on the edge of the cut would have would have been pulling the boat forward and lightening the weight on the snow or rollers at the same time.
The EVIDENCE of the Viking Waterway,
 c3,700 years old, is:
The man modified harbor in Stinking Lake.
The mooring stone(s) in Stinking Lake.
The straight cut for 1,000 feet, east of Stinking Lake.
The deep cut of 1,000 feet long, 200 feet wide, and 16 feet deep in the best location to provide the best portage from the shallow stream to Duck Lake.
The man modified berms creating a harbor at Duck Lake.
The mooring stone at Duck Lake. 
[Reported by Holand in 1928. Now apparently covered by the road.]
The EVIDENCE for the Viking use of the waterway is:
The holes in the mooring stones.
The 14th century Norse artifacts found at the Buffalo River.
The Viking Sword. (Ulen Museum)
The Bronze spear point with founder's marks (in Mahnonmen museum).
The two arrows with metal arrowheads.  (Detroit Lakes Museum).
The Kensington Rune Stone. (Alexandria Museum)
The many 14th century Norse artifacts in the Alexandrea Museum.
The Viking whetstones. (Alexandria Museum and Steve Helgrin).

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