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Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Holands's 1928 drawing of the Viking Waterway.


The Viking Waterway
connected the Red River watershed
to the Mississippi watershed
Thus creating a waterway capable of floating
small knarr boats with 
crews fifteen or sixteen men
on a Viking voyage from
the Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.
Viking knarr having 
seven rowers per side
would be an example of the boat
 that traversed America.
The map above was made in 1928
by Hjalmar Holand.
It took until 1956 to publish the information
in "Explorers in America Before Columbus."
The triangles represent mooring stones.
Harbors, most man modified,
are seen via Google Earth
near each mooring stone.
A huge number of slaves
(Asia minor and Europe was full of slaves then)
may have been carried in by ship and boats
to modify the natural harbors
to enable the knarr to float on water
from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.
Myron D Paine, Ph. D. [Engineering]
traced the transcontinental waterway
February 28, 2010 

Beginning of the Minnesota waterway passage in 1362

Buffalo River comes from the east.  In spring the waters may be fast.  But notice that the river runs through country that would have been prairie in the 14th century.  A crew of 30 men could have pulled a heavy (Holand estimated 1,500 pounds) longboar upriver.

Possibly there might have been men with pulling ropes on both sides of the river.  The river rises 300 feet in about 90 miles.  The boat may have been pulled, but it was floating on water.  The pulling task may have taken 3 to 5 days.

[Click on photos for a larger view.]

Junction of Buffalo River and Red River

Holand"s Mooring Sones #1, 2, & 3.

     HOLAND'S MOORING STONES #1, 2, & 3.

Holand’s Mooring stones #1. 2. and 3, are shown in this picture as white targets above the white “Z” locators.  Mooring stone #3 is at Duck Lake that is at the highest elevation.  From this lake, near Lake Park, MN, today, the heavy crew-rowed boats could go mostly down stream to the Gulf of Mexico.  The Duck Lake and La Belle Lake have been divided by a road way.  Duck Lake had a streams flowing away toward Buffalo River in the west and La Belle Lake flows  from the east side.  

The cross over from the Red River watershed to the Mississippi watershed occurs further down stream of the water flowing from the east end of La Belle Lake, northeast of Lake Park, MN.



This is the location of mooring stone #1.  Notice that it appears to be a man made lagoon with straight sides and almost square corners.  This is not a natural formation.  In Holand’s time a man made lagoon would have required much work with horses pulling dump buckerts.

There is a possibility that the lagoon was made, for some reason, by modern earth moving equipment.  But when the other mooring stone locations are observed. The paradigm changes.  This small harbor may have been dug into place by humans during the copper trading  era about 3,500 years ago.

This small harbor may have been a rest stop after the long pull up the Buffalo River.  It would hold only about nine longboats.  That may have been enough for a crew to get a day of relaxation before they had to get out of the way of the crews pulling upriver behind them. 


Mooring stone #2 location is shown at the center left of this image.  The image is taken from a higher elevation than the image for mooring stone #1.  So the harbor looks smaller but it will hold more longboats.  
The earthen berm to the right appears to have been made by someone moving dirt into the lake to form the harbor.
Mooring stone #2 is shown at the left.  This location is just before the pull to Duck Lake where mooring stone #3 was found.   Boat crews may have put into this harbor to prepare while waiting their turn on the boat lift segment.  Maybe additional men with ropes joined the crew, who would soon make the pull up the shallow stream toward the 60 foot lift.
The larger stones used for mooring stones may have been moved into place by the Copper miners of 4,200 to 3,200 years ago.
An iron bit was needed to make a hole in the mooring stone.  The holes in the stones are evidence that the iron-age Vikings were in western Minnesota from the years 1,000 to 1,400.  Steve Helgrin has found the front edge of a Viking iron bit (2011).
The image above shows the waterway from Sti1nking Lake, left top, to Duck Lake, right bottom.  This segment was a difficult passage.  The elevation profile at the bottom of the image illustrates the difficulty.
Up until this segment the boat crews may have been gaining elevation by walking in the grass and pulling an empty boat upstream.  When they reached Stinking Lake they would have pulled the boat about 43 miles from the Red River.  They would have gained about 380 feet of elevation.
The STRAIGHT cut.  Stinking Lake is beyond the trees.
But the Stinking to Duck Lake passage was different.  They could pull a few miles upstream on a small waterway that quickly petered out.  The first segment may have been a marsh.
Apparently a large amount of man power was used to straighten a waterway through that maze.
Then they were faced with a portage of the boat about sixty feet (60') high.  See the sudden rise at the right of the elevation profile.  
This land formation may have been caused when the Big Event. created the Horst of western Minnesota.  The uplifted flat terrain did not create rivers as mountain terrain would.  So the boat crews were faced with lifting the boats over the uplifted edge of Wynland of West. 
The DEEP CUT from Sinking Lake to Duck Lake

They may have made the portage easier by investing a great amount of manpower to make this deep cut.     In the Bronze age they may have had literally boat loads of slaves.
This cut is 200 feet wide, 1,000 feet long and slopes from the pond in the background to the height of a shallow depression over the ridge line between Stinking Lake and Duck Lake.
Another view of the Deep Cut,
 looking toward Stinking Lake.
Notice, in the image to the right, that the cut is about 16 feet deep in the center where the top of a small ridge is seen.  The near edge of the ridge is seen in the bottom of the image.

Perhaps the crew, or the slaves, stood on the hills up and over the ridge as they pulled the boats up the deep cut.  The advantage of the cut would have been that, when the men pulled on the ropes, they would have been a lifted the boat as well as moving it up the slope.  Without the cut, which enabled men to be above the boat, they may have pulled the boat down toward the snow or rollers.  The men standing on the edge of the cut would have would have been pulling the boat forward and lightening the weight on the snow or rollers at the same time.
The EVIDENCE of the Viking Waterway,
 c3,700 years old, is:
The man modified harbor in Stinking Lake.
The mooring stone(s) in Stinking Lake.
The straight cut for 1,000 feet, east of Stinking Lake.
The deep cut of 1,000 feet long, 200 feet wide, and 16 feet deep in the best location to provide the best portage from the shallow stream to Duck Lake.
The man modified berms creating a harbor at Duck Lake.
The mooring stone at Duck Lake. 
[Reported by Holand in 1928. Now apparently covered by the road.]
The EVIDENCE for the Viking use of the waterway is:
The holes in the mooring stones.
The 14th century Norse artifacts found at the Buffalo River.
The Viking Sword. (Ulen Museum)
The Bronze spear point with founder's marks (in Mahnonmen museum).
The two arrows with metal arrowheads.  (Detroit Lakes Museum).
The Kensington Rune Stone. (Alexandria Museum)
The many 14th century Norse artifacts in the Alexandrea Museum.
The Viking whetstones. (Alexandria Museum and Steve Helgrin).


Mooing stone #3 lay at the south shore of this lagoon.  This harbor may hold over 150 longboats.  The boats arrived from the channel in the lower left.  They left on the other side of Stinking Lake.

The highway makes it difficult to determine if the southern shore was linear when Holand found the mooring stone or if modern earth moving equipment shoved the shore line into place.
Mooring Stone and Harbor #3

The toughest part of the boat pulling was up the short, but steep. grade between mooring stone #2 and mooring stone #3.
Current speculation is that the boat pull was a winter time event when there was snow on the Ground.  That method may explain why this harbor was so much larger than the rest. 

Duck Lake is the high point of the Minnesota waterway.  From this lake heavy boats with large crews could row down stream, but they were still in the Red River watershed.  The cross over to the Mississippi water shed happened further down stream at Fergus Falls.  ["Fergus" meant "worthy to be called" a falls]

Duck Lake may have been a hub of activity as boats were pulled up, then prepared for departure.  Additional men and women may have been stationed at Duke Lake to assist with the pull from mooring stone #2 and to provision the boats before departure to the next main stop, Sauk Center, in the Mississippi watershed. [Sauk is a variation of Old Norse "Saga."]  Holand found evidence of an altar at Sauk Center.  A large habor lies adjacent to the altar.



Mooring stone locations #4, 5. & 6 are shown in this image.  These are down stream of Stinking Lake, but still in the Red River water shed.

Mooring Stone #5 is the spot where ten men were beaten to death in 1362.  The two skerries (stone ridges) are visible.   The dead men may have been loaded into the boat.  Then the boat may have been rowed to the location of mooring stone #6 for the night.



Mooring stone  and harbor #4 may have been a natural harbor created by the erosion caused by the small creek at the bottom of the image.  But men may have enhanced the natural features. 

Boats may have been tied side by side, extending into the “slot.” The crews may have stepped from boat to boat to get to shore.



Mooring stone #5 is at the location where the ten men were beaten to death on the beach.  The terrain surrounting this location would have made posting a security guard very difficult.



The image of mooing stone #6 locations shows that it would have been much more secure with fewwe men on watch.   The “X” marks the first location I thought Holand selected.  It too looks like a harbor.  But after careful re-reading Holand, I think the mooring stone was found where the circle is shown. This location would be much easier to secure with a minimum watch squad.

From mooring stone #6 to the location of the KRS stone is one full day in a crew rowed boat going down stream.  The Lenape history implies peaceful relationships with the Ojibwa at this time.  Perhaps the crew was met by friends at Kensington and where able to reorganize.  The 14 days to the ship implies they may have returned to Hudson Bay.  The journey could be made in 14 days with a crew rowed boat in summer time.

Conjecture:  The Copper Trading enterprise may have started with peaceful relationships, so the broader and more accessible harbor may have been used.  There is other evidence, such as the circle in the upper right corner, that the copper trading ships were fighting each other.  Then the more secure “hooked” harbor may have been used.


Rev.1 Oct. 13 2013, Waterway tour.
Rev 2, August 15, 2014. pageview spike by factor of 41.

Where is the rest of the story?

I hope the rest of the story can be told by a dynamic academic professor in a powerful university department capable of inspiring revolutionary thinking among the Social Science professions.

I stopped my study of this facet of the Lenape Migration when I realized:

EurAmericans really do not want to know.

Nearly all EurAmericans believe the Eurocentric Paradigm to their very core of reasoning.

The Eurocentric Paradigm postulates that the Americas were pristine continents inhabited by only a few stupid natives, who had no religion.

The Doctrine of Discovery and the Manifest Destiny became Eurocentric dogma to justify the actions of EurAmericans, which devastated two continents full of relatively peaceful people.  Many of those American peoples were living by Christ's ethics.

Anthropology, Archaeology, History, Humanity, Linguistics, Native American Studies and Religion are departments in most Social Science divisions of most U. S. universities.  But the Social Sciences in United States universities still teach the Eurocentric Paradigm.

 The Social Science professionals must maintain the Early American History, which is really Euramerican Mythology written by 16th Century European scholars to justify the Doctrine of Discovery.  

One ploy of the Social Scientists is to teach that Columbus was first to reach America.  Any evidence found in America that appears to have European signs before AD 1,500 is rejected, without serious study, because "Columbus was first."

[Rev. 2: Yet further study of the sea routes to America indicates that the Norse were routinely ROWING to America.  The longest length between lands was less than six days, which was an acceptable distance for sea people.]

[Rev. 1: This article pre-dates the 2012 firing of Patricia Sutherland, who published Vikings and Native Americans in the 2012 November issue of National Geographic.  Her firing is more evidence of what the Columbus was first Social Scientists mob will do to maintain the Columbus was first myth.]

No matter the results of many, many investigations that hard science researchers have done, they have not been able to make a clear date, which is carved in stone, become worthy of being written into history books by Social Science professionals.

The Social Science divisions also educate the teachers, who teach American Mythology to K-12 children. 

Thus young adults are well indoctrinated in the American Mythology, which is still based on the Columbus was first.  Those young adults become a growing multitude of ever present "defenders of the faith."

Five percent, or less, of EurAmericans ever learn about the Kensington Rune Stone.  Those who do, find out about the Rune Stone mostly by accident. To those few Americans a clear date, 1362, carved into stone by a Swede, who was located west of the Mississippi cannot possibly be true.

The very thought shatters the belief that Columbus was First!!

Think about the vast PILE of paper that has to be rewritten.
Think about the professional embarrassment of having evidence, carved in stone, visible for over a century and the story is not yet in history books. 

Think about the magnitude of the sins committed by those who believed in the European Paradigm: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, “Sharp Knife” Jackson, and most other presidents and nearly all our ancestors.

Think about immediate questions without reasonable answers, such as “Will the Americans want their land back?”

Think about the inability of EurAmericans today to atone for the sins of their fathers.  How can they?

A clear date, 1362, carved in a stone in Scandinavian script and lying west of the Mississippi cannot be truecan it?

It will not be true as long as the Social Scientists in United States universities continue to advocate that Columbus was First.  

They continue to justify the invaders.  But the 400 year invasion was over, for EurAmericans, in the 20th century.  Then the descendants of the original Americans were finally considered citizens of the United States,  a land  where their ancestors were born for centuries.   

Will Rodgers said: “Be thankful you do not get the government you pay for.”   In this case, we apparently got what people with Eurocentric minds paid for.

Will Rodgers was an American.  "Rodgers" is a common, but powerful American name.  The name derived from "rodda," which meant crucifix in Old Norse.  Crucifix!?  The Americans knew what carrying the Crucifix meant.

The Americans might like a study of past events by scholars, who have an American-centric Paradigms.

I still pray that:

the rest of the story can be told by a dynamic academic professor, and his aggressive band of graduate students, in a powerful university department capable of inspiring revolutionary thinking in the Social Science professions.

But I know, realistically, that a 77 [Rev 2: now 80] year old retired engineer does not have the proverbial snowball’s chance.

So on February 28, 2010, I made the decision to read about other things. 

[Oct, 2013: So much for good intentions.  My Friend Karl Hoenke and I visited western Minnesota in September, 2012.  We were looking for physical evidence of the Viking Waterway in four places.   We found evidence in five museums and all four places where we looked.

We decided to guide a tour of the VIKING WATERWAY evidence in Western Minnesota.  Forty-three passengers on the tour bus heard the plausible history based on the evidence they saw.  The confirmation of the plausible history came when the bus driver and then a passenger recognized evidence that Karl and I had not suspected was there.

A plausible history supported by physical evidence that has been visible for thousands of years will endure longer than a myth that Columbus was first.

But we are back to square one.  How do we find that dynamic professor, who can convince the Social Science profession that what they teach should be supported by evidence that a bus driver and his passengers can see.]

Fourteen Norse Ships lie along the Viking Waterway.

Sherm Hilgren of Ancient Vikings America, Yahoo group, wrote on Jan 11, 2012: "To 'solve' this puzzle or 'prove' the theory that Vinland is in Minnesota and that there were Vikings here would take a major discovery like that ancient Viking longship. It needs to be irrefutable proof so the archaeologists can see and touch before they give a seal of approval."
Then Sherm gave a list of 15 locations where Viking ships have been found in Minnesota.  Most observers would agree that fouteen locations are in or near the Viking Waterway, which was previously identified by Holand in 1928.  Hollan's Viking Waterway was put into the Lenape Epic Blog on August 18, 2011.

There are reports of 14 Norse Ships in the Viking Waterway
The Viking waterway route is shown by the blue, red and white pins. The Viking Waterway was used to move boats, which carried about 15 men, from the Red River to the Mississippi River.  The boats, precursors of the famous voyager canoe of the beaver trapping era, carried loads up to six tons.  The boats stayed on the water for the pull up the Buffalo River, which is shown by the blue pins. The crew, who walked along the grassy shore, carried a portion of the load.  They pulled a mostly empty boat upriver.

The upper yellow pin shows Duck Lake about 325 feet higher than the Red River.  The boats and the cargo were portaged seven miles to a jetty in Stakke Lake.  From that point the boats could float down stream all the way to the Gulf of Mexico with only a few short portages, which may have been required as the water levels fluctuated.
 There is evidence of earth work modifications to create ten or more harbors along the Viking waterway.   Park Lake, Stakke Lake, and Lake Alexander have remains of the dikes that raised their water levels to aid boat traffic.  Even with modern dirt moving equipment the amount of excavation would be significant.  These harbors, dikes, and at least one channel cut through rock may have been made by large groups of men during the copper trade episode 4200 to 3200 years ago.

During the Lenape Migration AD 1350 through 1370, the area along the Red River was known as "Vinland at West."  The Lenape from Greenland had migrated to get away from the climate effects of the start of the Little Ice Age.  The Lenape created a history that details the migration from Greenland to the Atlantic coast via Viking Waterway.  In AD 1585, Ralph Lane, an English Captain, shot the presiding Lenape historian in the head.

Observers might think that this supporting testimony for the Viking Waterway will compel Social Scientists to re-examine the accumulating evidence and testimony, which are "irrefutable proofthat Norse were in Minnesota 257 years before the English invasion in 1607.
Most observers may be disappointed.  The reason for the disappointment is that nearly all Social Scientists have been taught to teach the English"irrefutable paradigm."  The English paradigm teaches that America was a "Pristine Wilderness with only a few natives, who were pagan--and savage."
The "irrefutable paradigmhas been taught by Social Scientists for four centuries.
The "irrefutable paradigmwas written before the Virginia Company sailed to Jamestown.  At that time the "irrefutable paradigmwas not supported by evidence or testimony.  The paradigm is not supported by evidence or testimony now.
 But by teaching the "irrefutable paradigm," the Social Scientists may think they have become the absolute authorities.  There appears to be no Social Scientist, who is willing to admit that the "irrefutable paradigmis not supported by evidence or testimony.

Worse yet, the "irrefutable paradigmhas become a pathological paradigm.   Social Scientists are not the only authorities.  They never were.  The evidence has lain punched into stone and exhibited as iron artifacts in a museum for nearly a century.  The oldest American history660 years old, has been in libraries for over a century.  

Teen-age kids, today, may find information about the evidence and testimony on the Internet.  When the teachers do not cover the these subjects in Social Science classes, the students may lose respect for their teachers.  Students. who lose respect for their teacher, may become young adults, who believe all authorities should not be respected.  Distrust of authorities may lead to pathological disturbances in society.

If university Social Scientists did do honest research, they might conclude that, indeed, there were Norse in Minnesota about 1350.  The oldest American history, the Maalan Aarum, gives an accurate account of past events, including the history of the Norse migration. 
The Social Scientists may discover that the Maalan Aarum is an accurate history of  Norse in America.   Those Norse called themselves "Lenape," which means "Abide with the pure."  The Norse Lenape were Christians.  There are still seven groups of Norse Lenape Christians living in North America. 
Social Scientists will likely find that these results are inconceivable.  If  Social Scientists were forced to admit that Norse people were in America in 1350, the "Pristine Wilderness" and the "native" elements of the "irrefutable paradigm are not correct.  If Norse were in America 880 years ago, the people of America might not have been "pagan." 
 The oldest American history reveals that they were devoted Roman Catholic Christians.  Even European authors reported that nearly four thousand Norse Lenape migrated from Greenland to America.  Norwegian authorities calculate that there may have been over 20,000 Norse already in America when the Norse Lenape migration began.  Tens of thousands of Norse Lenape Christians is much more than a "few." Further more Christians do not ususally behave like savages.

Who were the savages?  The English were the "savages."   They carried germs, guns, and steel.  The English killed, raped, enslaved, or drove away Norse Lenape Christians.   Then they covered up their sins.  They used the "irrefutable paradigm to erase away their pathological deeds.

During the 300 years invasion of America, 1585-1890, the "irrefutable paradigm" created the mind set to devastate about a million Norse Christians.  
Those Norse Christian Lenape are remembered for having a peaceful, resourceful culture.  A division of the Boy Scouts of America uses the Order of the Arrow, based on Lenape culture, as part of their effort to instill moral character into young male adults.

How can the Lennie Lenape, whose ancestors were Norse Christians, be used to instill moral character into young male adults and yet the Social Scientists ignore the pile of evidence of Norse in Minnesota in 1350?

Because the teachers are taught to teach the "irrefutable paradigm."  By teaching, teachers become authorities to their students.  Evidence, which may be proof that the teachers are presenting an invalid paradigm, is instead regarded as invalid evidences.  The evidence does not fit the Eurocentric "irrefutable paradigm." The evidence may be ignored by Social Scientists.  For example: Norse text punched into stone in 1362, which has been on display in a museum for nearly a century, is not found in school history books. 
So, Sherm's testimony that fifteen Norse ships have been located in Minnesota and the map showing that thirteen of those ships may have been found along the Viking Waterway is unnecessary testimony.  But all the solid physical, isolated, evidence is not "irrefutable proof when confronted by"irrefutable paradigmthat has been instilled into hundreds of millions minds.  Tens of thousands of those minds will become the Social Science teachers of the next generation.  What will they teach?
The Social Scientists will most likely continue to teach the irrefutable pathological paradigm until society becomes disturbed.
You may understand early American history better if you realize that the irrefutable paradigm is
not the history that would be taught is Social Scientists were true scientists.  But, for now, they continue to suppress the truth of America's past by teaching the irrefutable paradigm.


Wynland of West is indicated by red lines at left. 
The Red River is at the upper left.
A seven mile portage is between harbors 3 and 4 from the upper right.
Harbor 3 lies in the Red River water shed.
 Harbor 4 does too, but the waterway was man modified so that
the waters flow down stream to the continental divide, shown at the upper white pin. 
The anchor at lower right is in the Mississippi Basin



Hudson Bay about 3,700 years ago. Water level eye-balled using visible terrain differences.

 About 9,000 years after the Big Event, the water level around the world had risen over 400 feet.  In the Hudson Bay area, where the glaciers before the Big Event had flattened the earth, the surface of the earth began rebounding upward.
About 3,700 years ago Wynland of West looked like the image above as seen from a passing space ship.
At that time the oceans and rivers were highways.  A common language was spoken by the people of the sea throughout the north Atlantic.  The same language may have been spoken by the people of the land for about five days walk away from the coasts. 

The situation was similar to the use of English around the world today in the aviation age.  Trading activity would have refreshed the coastal language and reduced regional dialects toward common understandable trading words.

Super Nova's make pure copper.  The Great Lakes area (lower right) may have been the epicenter of the debris front of the Super Nova that caused the Big Event.  The evidence indicates that Lake Superior is folded like a long platter. as if it were pounded very hard from the sky.  

Copper from space may have impacted the two mile thick ice above the region.  The ice and earth may have  rebounded upward and then settled onto the rapidly melting ice.   The jumbled lake country of Minnesota appears to have been made by the debris blown out of Lake Superior.  The lake country does not have much copper.  The copper would not have rebounded as high or as far as dirt and rock.

The women of Wisconsin, just below Lake Superior, had learned how to build a fire hot enough to cast copper about 7,500 years ago.  Women were the fire users.  They would have learned how to make hot fires.  "Wisconsin" means "his wise woman."  Men, who traded cast copper tools, may have used that phrase often as they explained where the copper tools came from.

The evidence indicates that copper trading went overland all the way to South America.  But about 4,200 years ago the  people of the sea had traced the source of the copper artifacts.    The Bronze age began in Europe and Asia Minor.

For the next 1,000 years the ships of the people of the sea explored all the possible routes to sail into copper country.  A well  traveled route was the Mississippi, which is shown in Green in the image above.  King Solomen's fleet apparently used the Mississippi route.  But there is evidence that violence between competing ships made the Mississippi route a hazardous adventure.

Ships arriving via Hudson Bay could sail all the way to Wynland of West, but they would have been a long way from the copper.
Some intelligent men of the sea figured out that the water from Duck Lake near Lake Park, MN, flowed two ways, west and southeast.  Both ways resulting the water flowing into the Red River.  But the Pelican River, which flowed south wast, passed very near to the sources of another river, now called the Pomme de Terre River, which flowed into the Mississippi River.

By making a few skillful, but labor intensive, modifications to the natural rivers, the people of the sea created a transcontinental waterway from the Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.  Those modifications included a series of harbors with mooring stones, cut channels, and, perhaps camps.  ["Minneapolis" means "Small Camp Ground."]  The Transcontinental waterway is shown in purple in the image above.

The people of the sea may have made a special ship to sail the oceans and to slip though the lakes and shallow rivers of the transcontinental waterway.  That ship may have looked like this:
A ship like this is shown in the image of the People of the Sea in the Lenape Epic.
The illustration is for returning to the east side of the Atlantic.
They would have put the sail down and rowed to North America.



About 400 BC Hudson Bay waters would have receded as the rebounding land rose.

About 1,200 BC a catastrophic event destroyed most land civilizations.  The people of the sea were probably devastated also.
The Bronze age ended.  A few centuries later, a few modern land civilizations began to recover.  Genesis of the Bible begins with the convulsions of the earth.  Arab records report the same. 

Egypt appears to have a history that is dated 600 years older than the events that really happened.  When Egypt's history is moved 600 years closer, then the details of Egypt's similar catastrophe appear to be compatible with Genesis.  The "poor people" of the Egyptian saga may have been the Israel slaves dumped overboard after being enslaved by Egyptians and forced to man the ships going to America to mine copper.

The "one god" concept of the Jews, which was unique in Asia Minor, may have been learned in America.  The Lenape Genesis is the oldest in the world.

About 400 BC a crew of a space ship over Hudson Bay would have seen that the waters of Hudson Bay would have receded as the rebounding land rose.  Access to copper via the Mississippi route may have been more contested because of national European/Asia minor rivalry.  Copper ships may have returned to Wynland of West and floated back to Hudson Bay.  

The red line represents the original shoreline.  The shoreline is based on visual observation of Google Earth's land features.  An accurate topographical analysis is left for students wanting to earn their graduate degrees. 

The local American people, who may have survived, may have been using the Minnesota Waterway for local travel.  Transcontinental travel by water may have resumed.  The people of the sea and the people of America may have become accustomed to long voyages to far places.
America has evidence of red haired giants.  The Scots and the Danes of Europe are at the end of the Gulf Stream current.  Some Scots had red hair.  The Danes are the tallest people in the world. The geometric earth works in Danmark were built about 800 years after similar geometric earth works were built along the Ohio River.

The moral principles of the sea people may have prevailed from the Mississippi eastward to the Atlantic coast.  These principles are trade, non-violent resolution of conflicts, respect for women, equality, privacy, and secrecy.  The people of the sea and America may have assumed that all people traveled on long journeys over water.  Boats may have been part of the culture.

But the urgent demand for copper had died away.  Iron is a contaminent of furnaces made to cast copper.  The recovering people of Asia and Europe appear to have used the ancient copper casting furnaces to make iron.  Then steel weapons were made.  

So the warfare culture of the land people appears to have used steel weapons to defeat the land armies clad in copper. Large empires devastated Asia Minor in sequencial order. History was written by the land people.  The scribes were usually located on land behind high stone walls of the prevailing king.

Then shortly after 400 BC, another poorly reported catastrophe caused gaps in the historic records around the world.    Fables of dragons in Far East Asia and snakes America appear to have increased in this era.  Dragons and snakes might have been a way the people on earth would have described the contrails of incoming comets.  The Bible records two incoming comets, or one comet recorded twice, in Ezekiel.

The lights of the world had dimmed again.  The land peoples, who were enmeshed in warfare over agricultural areas, may have cared little about reporting the history of the people of the sea.  

But the people of the sea must have suffered catastrophe too.


HUDSON BAY about 450 AD.  The transcontinental waterway is still in use.
The time is now 450 AD.  Another catastrophe has come and gone.
The Romans have won most of the battles from England to Persia.  They are the dominant land power of the world.  They destroy Carthage, the major city of the people of the Sea.  Caesar used "sea tanks" to destroy the fleet of the Venetta, more people of of the sea. The land people have won the battles but lost the wars.  The Roman Empire is in decline.
The land near Hudson Bay has risen again.  Now the river voyage to the Wynland of West is longer, but heavy boats can still navigate the Nelson River, Lake Winnipeg and the Red River to Wynland of West.
The Transcontinental waterway is still being used.  There is still connection between Wynland of West and the Mississippi River basin. 

In Oklahoma near Spiro mounds the script is runes.  In the Ohio River valley the script is Hebrew.  Scholars, who believe that no one came to America before the invasion, label this period the Hopewell culture.  Artifacts similar to artifacts in Europe or the Mediterranean are believed to have been developed by coincidental invention.


HUDSON BAY may have looked like during the start of the LITTLE ICE AGE
The next catastrophe was documented better, but European historians had not yet understood how weather works.  The North Atlantic Oscillation persists over Iceland for long periods of time.  
When the Baltic Sea froze as it did in 1302-4, the whaling in Davis Strait was done in warm weather.  When the torrential rains swamped European sea coasts and rivers for hundreds of miles inland, Davis Strait froze.  Europe and North America were separated for three centuries.
So at the beginning of the Little Ice Age, space ship visitors may have seen Hudson Bay looking like this in early spring: Davis Strait and Hudson Bay had frozen.  In some years they may have frozen every month of the year.  For the Norse Christians of Greenland, who called themselves "Lenape," survival meant they had to walk on the ice to their kinfolks in Wynland of West.  Fortunately, they learned how to walk on ice.
In the meantime, the waters of Europe, which had devastated the coastal cities, was followed by the Black Plague as temperatures allowed the plague carrying mosquitos to swarm.  Norway, which had been ice bound suffered worse when the plague hit after Europe's suffering.
By then northern Europeans began to have bumper crops.  The European food surplus was used as agricultural blackmail to keep the famished Norwegians restricted onto land.  Norwegians did not recover their sailing talents until four centuries later.  So, knowledge of Wynland of West faded into the snowbanks.  Only fishermen of the north Atlantic knew where the cod banks were.
When the sailors of Europe began to push the envelope, the Pope changed the rules.  His Bull proclaiming that the first discover of new lands could claim the land for the King of the sailors, created a mind set that somewhere in the west was New Land where no one had ever gone before.  A sub set of the the Eurocentric Paradigm became a firm paradigm for America:  "America was a pristine wilderness, occupied by only a few natives, who were pagan."
For five centuries, if evidence conflicted with the Eurocentric paradigm, the evidence was thrown out.


VIKING WATERWAYS on modern map

In the early Twentieth Century surveyors mapped Minnesota.  The map below is a result of that effort.  An interesting feature of the map is that the surveyors colored the grass land brown and the areas with trees a lighter yellow tan.
VIKING WATERWAY on a modern map.
When the Viking Waterway is over laid on the modern map and when the locations of reports of "Viking" ships seen by early settlers are added, then the locations of the "Viking" ships appear to be in reasonable places.  

All of the locations, where "Viking" ships have been seen, that appear some distance off the Viking Waterway, may have been accessible via water.

There are two stretches where the men in the boats had to pull the boats up-stream, the Buffalo River and the stretch just before Kensington.  Notice on the map that for each stretch the rivers were running through grass lands.  So the men could pull the boats without having to cut down a forest of trees.